生物炭对土壤重金属污染修复应用综述研究。

生物炭对土壤重金属污染修复应用综述研究。

Highlights

•The metal-biochar interactions and mechanisms in soils were reviewed.

•Potential risks associated with biochar amendment were discussed.

•Cases of biochar application in soils in China were summarized.

•Long term effects of biochar on soil remediation need further investigation.

Abstract

There are global concerns about heavy metal (HM) contamination in soils, which in turn has produced an increased demand for soil remediation. Biochar has been widely documented to effectively immobilize metals in contaminated soils and has received increasing attention for use in soil remediation. Here, we review recent progresses in understanding metal-biochar interactions in soils, potential risks associated with biochar amendment, and application of biochar in soil remediation in China. These recent studies indicate that: (1) the remediation effect depends on the characteristics of both biochar and soil and their interactions; (2) biochar applications could decrease the mobility/bioavailability of HMs in soils and HM accumulation in plants; and (3) despite its advantages, biochar applications could pose ecological and health risks, e.g., by releasing toxic substances into soils or by inhalation of biochar dust. Research gaps still exist in the development of practical methods for preparing and applying different biochars that target specific HMs. In the future, the long term effects and security of biochar applications on soil remediation, soil organisms and plant growth need to be considered.

土壤中的重金属污染受到了全世界范围的关注,同样也增加了对土壤修复的需求。生物炭在污染土壤中有效固定金属的作用得到了广泛研究,在土壤修复中越来越受到重视。本文综述了近年来国内外对土壤中金属-生物炭相互作用、生物炭作为改良剂的潜在风险以及生物炭在土壤修复中的应用研究进展。

近年来的研究表明:(1)生物炭对土壤的修复效果取决于生物炭和土壤的特性及其相互作用;(2)生物炭的应用降低了重金属在土壤中的迁移和生物可利用性,降低了重金属在植物中的积累;(3)尽管生物炭有其优点,但其应用可能会带来生态风险(例如有可能向土壤中释放有毒物质)和健康风险(例如吸入生物炭粉尘)。在针对特定重金属而制备和应用的不同生物炭的研发方面仍然存在研究空白。今后,需要考虑生物炭应用对土壤修复、土壤微生物和植物生长的长期影响和安全性。


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