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铵态氮肥、硝态氮肥、酰铵态氮肥

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一、铵态氮肥 肥料中的氮素以铵(或氨)形态存在的,就是铵态氮肥,如碳酸氢铵、硫酸铵、液氨等.它们有以下共性: 1、易溶于水:铵态氮肥都易溶于水,并能产生铵离子及相应的阴离子,作物能直接吸收利用,属于速效性养分,因此,作追肥肥效较快. 2、能被土壤胶粒吸附:铵态氮肥中的铵离子与土壤胶粒上已有的阳离子进行交换后,可吸附在土壤胶粒上,成为交换态养分.铵离子被吸附后,移动性小,不易流失,可逐步供给作物吸收利用.因此,比铵态氮肥的肥效期长.既可作基肥,也可作追肥施用. 3、碱性条件下易分铵态氮肥遇碱性物质会分解,分解后释放出氨气而挥发损失.因此,铵态氮肥的贮存、运输和施用过程中都应该注意防止氨的挥发损失. 4、在土壤中能转化:在通气良好的土壤中,铵态氮肥可进行硝化作用,转变为硝态氮,增加氮在土壤中移动性,便于作物吸收,也易造成氮素的损失. 二、硝态氮肥 肥料中的氮素以硝酸根离子形态存在的叫硝态氮肥.如硝酸铵、硝酸钙、硝酸钠等.其特点如下: 1、易溶于水:溶于水产生硝酸离子,是速效性氮肥.各种硝态氮肥溶解度都很大,吸湿性强,在雨季稀释后能转化为液体,给施用带来很多不便. 2、不能被土壤吸附:硝态氮肥施入土壤中,不能被土壤胶体吸附,易随水移动而引起硝酸根的淋失,降低肥效.因此,硝态氮肥施入土壤后只能存在于土壤溶液中,并随土壤水分运动而移动. 3、易进行反消化而损失:在土壤通气不良的情况下,施入土壤的硝态氮肥可进行反消化作用,形成作物不能利用的氧化氮气体或氮气而脱氮损失. 4、易燃易爆:多数硝态氮肥吸湿性强,吸湿潮解后结块,易受热分解放出氨气,易燃易爆,在贮存、运输和施用中应注意防潮和安全,不要和易燃物一起存放. 硝态氮肥适用于多种土壤作物,特别是适宜旱作地区施用,对棉、烟、果、菜等经济作物尤为适用.但硝态氮用于水稻田的效果不如铵态氮好,主要原因是硝态氮移动性大,氮素易随水进入水稻田的还原层,在还原层中进行返硝化作用,把硝态氮还原成氮气或氧化氮气逸出水面而挥发损失.硝态氮肥宜作追肥,一般不宜作基肥和种肥,因其吸湿性强,会影响种子萌芽和幼苗生长,故不能和碱性肥料混合施用,以防氨气的挥发. 三、酰胺态氮肥 肥料中的氮以酰胺基形式存在的,或在分解过程中产生酰胺基的氮肥叫酰胺态氮肥.如尿素、石灰氮等.它们所含的酰胺态氮,一般需经过土壤微生物的作用,转为铵态氮之后,再供作物吸收. 【共同点:都是属于氮肥,都含有氮元素.】

Municipal sewage sludge treatment and disposal

污水处理

Municipal sewage sludge treatment and disposal Introduction: urban sewage sludge sewage treatment process solid waste generated. With the development of the cause of domestic sewage treatment, sewage water treatment plant and the total level of treatment will continue to expand and increase the amount of sludge produced is also increasing, currently its infrastructure and running […]

Humic acids can helps to resist drought and save water

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The main effect of humic acid that can effectively control the opening and closing of stomata to reduce transpiration, and thus increase crop drought resistance. Drought humic water-saving products is an important material support rainfed agriculture is to establish efficient water-saving agriculture fully staffed practical agricultural technology products. According to February 2009 the State Council […]

Humic acids can formulate fertilizer for organic agriculture

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Humic acid has a milestone fertilizer for organic agriculture and the role of agriculture compared with the current, it has the following characteristics: (A) may provide non-polluting to society, good taste, food safety and environmental protection food is conducive to people’s health and reduce disease. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, a substantial increase […]

Humic Acids help to improve Saline Soil

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Saline Soil improvement Northern China mostly alkaline soil and water, although some areas are built green space in fertile ground, underground saline water for irrigation, can also cause secondary saline soil. Saline area green building, improve the survival rate is a priority, and basic water and soil is a major obstacle to cause trees to […]

Formulate fertilizer according to soil analysis

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Patients go to the hospital, the doctor should first check tests to make a diagnosis before you prescribe the right medicine to prescribe according to the disease, it will get better soon. Fertilization is soil doctor for your land doctor prescribing pharmaceuticals. We are talking Fertilization internationally known as the “balanced fertilization,” This technology is […]